By Johannes Fabian
Johannes Fabian with the help of Kalundi Mango (Administrator, nationwide Museum of Zaire) and with linguistic notes by means of Walter Schicho (University of Vienna). a rare linguistic and sociopolitical rfile, it is a historical past of colonization written by way of the colonized, in regards to the colonized, and for the colonized. the unique textual content, a historical past of what's now Lubumbashi within the Shaba zone of Zaire, is reproduced in specific facsimile partly 1. The interval lined is from the start of Belgian colonization to 1965. The textual content used to be commissioned via an organization of former family servants and written, or compiled, by means of one Andre Yav. The facsimile textual content is by way of linguistic notes (provided by means of W. Schicho) at the number of Swahili utilized by the writer. partly 2 this outstanding record is two times translated: first, into an oralized' model in present Shaba Swahili and, moment, into English. a variety of old and linguistic notes make the textual content obtainable to the non-specialist. whereas components 1 and a couple of are of specific curiosity to linguists, half three covers a much broader quarter of highbrow matters. it's an essay examining the social stipulations, literary skill and political reasons and value of the background. Of curiosity to linguists, historians, sociologists and political scientists.
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Additional resources for History from Below: The "Vocabulary of Elisabethville" by André Yav: Text, Translations and Interpretive Essay (Creole Language Library)
Four. difficulties have been posed by way of French loans (especially numerals) and private in addition to position names. To various levels those are integrated into Shaba Swahili phonology and, occasionally, morphology. In precept this would be represented through writing those phrases phonemically. however the challenge right here, as in different places, is version. in any case it used to be determined to spell out the numbers in dates in French (the Shaba Swahili model could have 'mille neuf cent et six' the place the unique has '1906') and to right severe distortions (such as 'CHARCUTERIES' the place the unique has 'CHARCOUTRIEURS'). additionally, the unique has many lines of the author's lack of confidence approximately right pronunciation and orthography. He makes various upkeep which, whilst 're-oralized,' may appear as mere repetitions. every one of these have been passed over from the Shaba Swahili model. five. With all of the reservations famous, the Shaba Swahili model has one other nice functional virtue: learn side-by-side with the unique it disposes of the need to append a number of explanatory notes to phrases and words within the unique. enable me illustrate this with the 1st strains from the 2 texts: unique: abali ya wazungu kwakutufikia mu inchi ya Afirika na mu Congo (Mukongo) yetu na pia bakatufikia na sisi wa toto wa Katanga ya mashariki ni:mwaka gani? Shaba Swahili model: Habari ya wazungu: kwa kutufikia mu inchi ya Afrika: na mu Congo: mu Congo yetu: na pia bakatufikia na sisi watoto wa Katanga ya masha riki/ ni mwaka gani? 6 historical past From lower than Translation: about the information of the Whites arriving within the nation of Africa, within the Congo, in our Congo, and particularly once they arrived between us, little ones of East Katanga. Which yr used to be it? remark: - abali is a potential yet now not a widespread variation of ECS habari (with h sooner than a deleted and alternation among r and I). - The 'oralized' Shaba Swahili model has after Katanga ya mashariki a tone trend indicating an entire clause. this means that the word starting with habari ya wazungu and finishing with yetu is proleptic and most sensible trans¬ lated as 'Concerning, and so on. ,' making it a type of heading. - Connective kwa could be separated from kutufikia; the prefix wa might be joined to toto. - the top of the 1st word after mashariki isn't marked within the unique whereas the colon among ni and mwaka isn't really prompted. 6. To have, except the unique, additionally the Shaba Swahili model made it attainable to key Swahili textual content and Translation into one another via slicing every one 'chapter' in either texts into corresponding, numbered paragraphs. during this technique, too, the tenet used to be practicality. Paragraph cuts regularly mirror narrative devices, usually seen as a metamorphosis of subject, or a brand new begin marked lexically via sasa, tena, and so forth. In a few cases lengthy paragraphs have been lower arbitrarily to make cross-references more uncomplicated. In different phrases, now not all paragraph cuts are at the comparable logical point. 7. the prospect to consult the Shaba Swahili model made it pointless to justify in each case the English model within the precise demeanour of which we gave an instance above.