By Stephen Halliwell
The 1st ebook to supply an built-in analyzing of old Greek attitudes to laughter. Taking fabric from a number of genres and contexts, the booklet analyses either the speculation and the perform of laughter as a revealing expression of Greek values and mentalities. Greek society constructed specified associations for the party of laughter as a capability that may bridge the space among people and gods; however it additionally feared laughter for its strength to reveal members and teams to disgrace or even violence. stuck among principles of enjoyment and ache, friendship and enmity, laughter turned a topic of recurrent curiosity in a number of contexts. applying a cosmopolitan version of cultural background, Stephen Halliwell strains gildings of the subject matter in a sequence of significant texts: ranging a ways past smooth money owed of 'humour', he indicates how perceptions of laughter helped to form Greek conceptions of the physique, the brain and the which means of existence.
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Additional resources for Greek Laughter: A Study of Cultural Psychology from Homer to Early Christianity
2), katapa©zein (esp. Ar. fr. 171: see above), prospa©zein (add e. g. Pl. legislation 10. 885c to LSJ’s entry), and n. fifty one under on Theog. 1211. in a different way, satyric ‘play’ is disparaged in Soph. fr. 314. 354 TrGF; it displays the satyrs’ childishness (366) and ‘stupid jokes’ (mära kaª gelo±a, 369): cf. Appendix 2 n. sixty two. Dio Chrys. four. 91–2 (Diogenes the Cynic speaking); cf. n. one hundred and one under, ch. eight n. 20. 20 creation formative years, showing first within the early months of existence after which changing into so routine that it's tough to suppress. An apocryphal yet revealing anecdote from Theophrastus’ paintings On Comedy relates how the folks of Tiryns, after they had to keep away from laughter in the course of a non secular sacrifice, made up our minds to exclude young ones, trying thereby, might be, to restrain the kid in themselves. forty four it's linguistically believable that strains of the spirit of youngsters or the younger are current, at the very least faintly, within the prolonged software of the paizein word-group to grownup modes of behaviour. yet that connection is usually marked via distinction besides, due to the fact grownup paidia implies awake adoption of another state of mind: acting the spirit of early life, so that you could communicate, instead of being a baby. This prolonged proposal of paidia collects robust institutions, even to the purpose of personification in visible artwork, with a cluster of actions that come with track, track, dance, joyful celebration, the comfy intimacies of commensal friendship, and – on the center of the cluster – laughter. forty five the typical conjunction of laughter and ‘play’ is either socially and psychologically advanced. It centres on behaviour that doesn't easily reproduce the ‘first order’ play of youth yet comprises (ideally) a self-conscious suspension of the conventional consequentiality of ‘taking issues seriously’. forty six Children’s personal play can, after all, be seemed (by adults) as serving a potential goal – a type of mimetic practice session forty four forty five forty six Theophr. fr. 124 Wimmer (apud Athen. 6. 261d–e), fr. 709 Fortenbaugh (1992) ii 554: see ch. four, 155–7. Children’s laughter (half their existence, alternating with tears: Marcus Aur. Med. five. 33) is mirrored in conventions of visible artwork: Appendix 2, 551. at the improvement of laughter and smiles in infancy, see ch. 6 n. 142. For a latest concept of the relation among ‘the comedian’ and youth, see Freud (1989) 207–11, Freud (1976) 286–92. The vocabulary of play and laughter mixed: e. g. Theog. 1211 (but cf. n. fifty one below), Hdt. 2. 173, Ar. Frogs 374–5, 388–92, Hippoc. Morb. Sacr. 17, Xen. Cyr. 2. three. 18, Pl. Euphr. 3e, Crat. 406b–c, Rep. five. 452e (the final with jilopa©smwn: ch. four n. 1), legislation 7. 816e, Isoc. 10. eleven, Arist. Rhet. 1. eleven, 1371b34, 2. three, 1380b3, EN four. eight, 1128a14, 10. 6, 1177a4, Antiphanes fr. 217. four, adesp. el. 27. four IEG (ch. three, 114–17), SEG xv 517 a col. ii. 31 (ch. four n. 61), Lucian, promenade. es 6 (comedy personified), Alex. 25, Bis acc. 10, Dio Chrys. 32. 1, Plut. Lyc. 25. 2, Mor. 1101e, Rufin. Anth. good friend. five. sixty one (a genuine online game plus erotic play: web page (1978) 92–3). Paidia is near-synonymous with laughter at Arist. EN 2. 7, 1108a13, 23, as EN four. eight confirms (ch.